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Kingdoms of Israel and Judah, 1000–586 BCE

Tel Dan Stele

The “House of David” Inscribed on a Victory stele, Tell Dan, Basalt, Israelite period, 9th c. BCE, H. 32 cm, W. 22 cm, IAA 96-125/ 93-3162

Highlights-

  1. Overview
    1. The City of David is the Archaeological Portal to the History of the Jewish People, George S. Blumenthal, COJS.
    2. The City of David 1000-961, Teddy Kollek and Moshe Pearlman, Jerusalem- Sacred City of Mankind, Steimatzky Ltd., Jerusalem, 1991.
    3. Solomon’s Jerusalem 961-922, Teddy Kollek and Moshe Pearlman, Jerusalem- Sacred City of Mankind, Steimatzky Ltd., Jerusalem, 1991.
    4. The Divided Kingdom 922-722, Teddy Kollek and Moshe Pearlman, Jerusalem- Sacred City of Mankind, Steimatzky Ltd., Jerusalem, 1991.
    5. Quotations from the Book of Isaiah
    6. Isaiah and Hezekiah 715-687, Teddy Kollek and Moshe Pearlman, Jerusalem- Sacred City of Mankind, Steimatzky Ltd., Jerusalem, 1991.
    7. The Fall…587, Teddy Kollek and Moshe Pearlman, Jerusalem- Sacred City of Mankind, Steimatzky Ltd., Jerusalem, 1991.
    8. Biblical History- From David to Isaiah, c. 1000-700 BCE, Steven Feldman, COJS.
    9. Biblical History- From Isaiah to Jeremiah, c. 700-586 BCE, Steven Feldman, COJS.
    10. The Destruction of King Solomon’s Temple, George S. Blumenthal, COJS.
  2. Artifacts
    1. Gezer Calendar, 10th century BCE
    2. Sarcophagus of Ahirom, 10th century BCE
    3. Mesudat Nahal Aqrav, 10th century BCE
    4. Earliest Aramaic Inscription, 10th century BCE
    5. Tel Zayit Inscription, 10th century BCE
    6. Public Building in the City of David, 10th century BCE
    7. Elah Fortress Ostracon, 10th century BCE
    8. Ain Dara Temple, 10th century BCE
    9. Bamah at Tel Dan, 10th century BCE
    10. Cult Room/Marzeah – Lachish Room 49, 10th century BCE
    11. Beehive, 10th-early 9th century BCE
    12. Large Horned Altar, 10th-8th century BCE
    13. Small Horned Altars
    14. King David, 1005-965 BCE
    15. Horned Altar from Megiddo, 1000-900 BCE
    16. Asherah, 10th-7th century BCE
    17. Cult Basin, 10th-7th century BCE
    18. Arad Temple, 10th-6th century BCE
    19. First Temple Bulla, 10th-6th century BCE
    20. Proto-Ionic Capital, c. 961–921 BCE
    21. Goliath Pottery, 950 BCE
    22. First Temple and Ark of the Covenant, 950 BCE
    23. Gameboard, late 10th century BCE
    24. Eshtemoa Silver Hoard, 10th-9th century BCE
    25. Relief and Stelae of Pharaoh Shoshenq I- Rehoboam’s Tribute, c. 925 BCE
    26. Shoshenq Megiddo Fragment
    27. Bronze Soldier from Megiddo
    28. Arad Archive, 900 BCE-early 6th century BCE
    29. Aramaic Inscription Bowl, 9th century BCE
    30. Ahab Signet Ring, 9th century BCE
    31. Seal of Jezebel, 9th–8th century BCE
    32. Samaria Ivories, 9th-8th century BCE
    33. Incense Shovels from Tel Dan, 9th-8th century BCE
    34. Bracelet of Shoshenq II, c. 890 BCE
    35. Winged Lion, c. 883-859 BCE
    36. King Ahab, 874–853 BCE
    37. The Triad of Osiris, c. 850 BCE
    38. Kurkh Stele, 853 BCE
    39. Annals Edition 1, 841 BCE
    40. Moabite Stone, c. 840 BCE
    41. Tel Dan Stele, c. 840 BCE
    42. Annals Edition 2- Marble Slab Inscription, 839 BCE
    43. Annals Edition 3 – The Kurba’il Statue, 839 BCE
    44. Annals Edition 4 – The Black Obelisk, 828 or 827 BCE
    45. Yahalu Lot, 833-821 BCE
    46. The Nora Stone, c. 831-785 BCE
    47. Arad-Nirari III Stone Slab, 810-783 BCE
    48. Arad-Nirari III Saba’a Stela, 810-783 BCE
    49. Bronze Bucket, c. 800 BCE
    50. Samaria Ostraca, 8th century BCE
    51. Stone Bowl Inscription, 8th century BCE
    52. Akiba Inscription, 8th century BCE
    53. Judean Pillar Figurines, 8th century BCE
    54. Kuntillet ‘Ajrud Fortress with Inscriptions, 8th century BCE
    55. Warren’s Shaft, 8th century BCE
    56. Homer, 8th century BCE
    57. Griffon, 8th century BCE
    58. Hebrew Ostracon, 8th century BCE
    59. Isaiah the Prophet, 8th century BCE
    60. Seal of Rephaihu ben Shalem, 8th century BCE
    61. Garden Tomb, 8th-7th century BCE
    62. Seal of Ishtar, 8th-7th century BCE
    63. Inscribed Hebrew Seals, 8th-6th century BCE
    64. Building Remains, 8th-6th century BCE
    65. Netanyahu ben Yaush Seal, 8th-6th century BCE
    66. Tel Al Rimah Stele, 797 BCE
    67. Seal of Shema, c. 788 BCE
    68. Chronicle on the Reigns from Nabonassar to Shamash-shum-ukin, 747-668 BCE
    69. The Pazarcik Stela, 773 BCE
    70. Founding of Rome, 753 BCE
    71. Deir-Alla Inscription, 750–700 BCE
    72. Azriyau Annal Fragment, 738 BCE
    73. Iran Stele, 737 BCE
    74. Cultic Bull Stelae, c. 732 BCE
    75. Tiglath-Pileser III in Chariot, 730 BCE
    76. Kalah Palace Annals of Tiglath-Pileser, 730 BCE
    77. Tiglath-Pileser III and the Syro-Ephraimite War- Kalah Palace Summary Inscription 4, 730 BCE
    78. Tiglath-Pileser III and the Syro-Ephraimite War- Kalah Palace Summary Inscription, 729 BCE
    79. The Babylonian Chronicle, 722 BCE
    80. The Annals of Sargon II, c. 722 BCE
    81. The Nimrud Prism, 720 BCE
    82. The Azekah Inscription, 720-701 BCE
    83. Assyrian Tribute List
    84. Assyrian Palace, c. 712 BCE
    85. Nineveh Annal Prism, 711 BCE
    86. Sennacherib, 705–681 BCE
    87. Sennacherib’s Quarry, 705–681 BCE
    88. Hezekiah’s Tunnel, 701 BCE
    89. Hezekiah’s (or Siloam) Tunnel Inscription, 701 BCE
    90. Bronze Crest, 701 BCE
    91. Hezekiah’s Defeat- The Annals of Sennacherib on the Taylor, Jerusalem, and Oriental Institute Prisms, 700 BCE
    92. Lakhish Reliefs at Nineveh, c. 700 BCE
    93. Physician’s Ointment Jar, c. 700 BCE
    94. Royal Steward Inscription, c. 700 BCE
    95. LMLK Seal, c. 700 BCE
    96. The Annals of Sennacherib on the Nineveh Bulls, 694 BCE
    97. Silver Scroll Amulets from Ketef Hinnom, c. 600 BCE
    98. “House of God” Ostracon, early 7th century BCE
    99. Ekron Inscription, early 7th century BCE
    100. Edomite Seal, 7th century BCE
    101. Iron Sword, 7th century BCE
    102. Tel Miqne-Ekron, 7th century BCE
    103. Treatment for Ear-Ache, 7th century BCE
    104. Treatment for Headache, 7th century BCE
    105. The Prophet Jeremiah, 7th century BCE
    106. Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, 7th century BCE
    107. Archer Seal, 7th century BCE
    108. Wine Decanter, 7th-6th century BCE
    109. Edomite Shrine, 7th-6th century BCE
    110. Edomite Seal, 7th-6th century BCE
    111. Edomite Horned Figure, 7th-6th century BCE
    112. Beqa‘ Weight, 7th-6th century BCE
    113. Shlomit Seal, 7th-6th century BCE
    114. Seal Rings and Bullae from the End of the First Temple Period
    115. Vassal Treaties of Esarhaddon, 681-669 BCE
    116. Stele of Esarhadddon, 671 BCE
    117. Tablet Fragment from Nineveh, 671 BCE
    118. Ashurbanipal’s Conquest of Thebes, 663 BCE
    119. Mezad Hashavyahu Ostracon, c. 630 BCE
    120. The First Extra-Biblical Reference to the Sabbath, c. 630 BCE
    121. Golden Cobra, c. 603 BCE
    122. Arad Inscription, 609 BCE
    123. Arad Ostraca, c. 600 BCE
    124. Arrow and Arrowhead, c. 600 BCE
    125. Baruch ben Neriah Bulla, 6th century BCE
    126. The Babylonian Chronicle (Chronicle 5)- Nebuchadnezzar Besieges Jerusalem, 597 BCE
    127. Nebo-Sarsekim Cuneiform Tablet, 595 BCE
    128. Babylonian Ration List- King Jehoiakhin in Exile, 592/1 BCE
    129. Lakhish Ostraca, c. 587 BCE
    130. House of Ahiel, 586 BCE
    131. Jerucal ben Shelemiah Seal, 586 BCE
    132. Gemaryahu Son of Shaphan Bulla, 586 BCE
    133. Seal of Gedaliah, 586 BCE
    134. Arrowheads from Babylonian Destruction, 586 BCE
    135. Biblical Megiddo
    136. Juglet from Tell Beit Mirsim
    137. Ivory Pomegranate
  3. Articles
    1. Introduction, Nahum Sarna, Songs of the Heart, Schocken Books, NY, 1993.
    2. A Kingdom Arises, Rina Abrams, COJS.
    3. Assyrian Ascension, Rina Abrams, COJS.
    4. The Fall of the Kingdom of Israel, Rina Abrams, COJS.
    5. The Assyrian Attack on Judea, Rina Abrams, COJS.
    6. By the Rivers of Babylon, Rina Abrams, COJS.
    7. Gila Hurvitz, The City of David, Institute of Archaeology Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1999.
    8. Iraq and the Bible, Bryant G. Wood.
    9. The Ancient Empires of the Middle East, Hadassah Levy, COJS.
    10. Elijah, Emil G. Hirsch, Eduard Konig, Jewish Encyclopedia.
    11. Ancient City of David To Be Re-Excavated, Mendel Kaplan, BAR 4-01, Mar 1978.
    12. The World’s First Museum and the World’s First Archaeologists, Lionel Casson, BAR 5-01, Jan-Feb 1979.
    13. The Evolution of Two Hebrew Scripts, Jonathan P. Siegel, BAR 5-03, May-Jun 1979.
    14. Was There a Seven-Branched Lampstand in Solomon’s Temple? Carol L. Meyers, BAR 5-05, Sep-Oct 1979.
    15. How Water Tunnels Worked, Dan P. Cole, BAR 6-02, Mar-Apr 1980.
    16. The Regional Study—A New Approach to Archaeological Investigation, Amnon Ben-Tor, BAR 6-02, Mar-Apr 1980
    17. Jerusalem’s Water Supply During Siege, Yigal Shiloh, BAR 7-04, Jul-Aug 1981.
    18. The Remarkable Discoveries at Tel Dan, John C. H. Laughlin, BAR 7-05, Sep-Oct 1981.
    19. Ancient Musical Instruments- Introduction, BAR 8-01, Jan-Feb 1982.
    20. Ancient Musical Instruments- The Finds That Could Not Be, Bathja Bayer, BAR 8-01, Jan-Feb 1982.
    21. Ancient Musical Instruments- What Did David’s Lyre Look Like? BAR 8-01, Jan-Feb 1982.
    22. Ancient Musical Instruments- How Scholarly Communication Works, BAR 8-01, Jan-Feb 1982.
    23. Ancient Musical Instruments- “Sounding Brass” and Hellenistic Technology, William Harris, BAR 8-01, Jan-Feb 1982.
    24. In Search of Solomon’s Lost Treasures, Neil Asher Silberman, BAR 6-04, Jul-Aug 1980.
    25. New York Times Misrepresents Major Jerusalem Discovery, Hershel Shanks, BAR 7-04, Jul-Aug 1981.
    26. BAR Interviews Yigael Yadin, Hershel Shanks, BAR 9-01, Jan-Feb 1983.
    27. “And David Sent Spoils … to the Elders in Aroer” (1 Samuel 30-26–28), Avraham Biran, BAR 9-02, Mar-Apr 1983.
    28. Scholars’ Corner- Network of Iron Age Fortresses Served as Military Signal Posts, BAR 9-02, Mar-Apr 1983.
    29. News from the Field- The Divine Name Found in Jerusalem, Gabriel Barkay, BAR 9-02, Mar-Apr 1983.
    30. BAR Jr.- Five Ways to Defend an Ancient City, Oded Borowski, BAR 9-02, Mar-Apr 1983.
    31. Of Hems and Tassels, Jacob Milgrom, BAR 9-03, May-Jun 1983.
    32. Scholars’ Corner- Is the Solomonic City Gate at Megiddo Really Solomonic? Valerie M. Fargo, BAR 9-05, Sep-Oct 1983.
    33. Destruction of Judean Fortress Portrayed in Dramatic Eighth-Century B.C. Pictures, Hershel Shanks, BAR 10-02, Mar-Apr 1984.
    34. News from the Field- Defensive Judean Counter-Ramp Found at Lachish in 1983 Season, David Ussishkin, BAR 10-02, Mar-Apr 1984.
    35. Scholars’ Corner- Yadin Presents New Interpretation of the Famous Lachish Letters, Oded Borowski, BAR 10-02, Mar-Apr 1984.
    36. The Mystery of the Unexplained Chain, Yigael Yadin, BAR 10-04, Jul-Aug 1984.
    37. Yigael Yadin 1917–1984, Hershel Shanks, BAR 10-05, Sep-Oct 1984.
    38. Queries and Comments- Who Chiseled Out the Siloam Inscription? BAR 10-05, Sep-Oct 1984.
    39. Is the Cultic Installation at Dan Really an Olive Press? Suzanne F. Singer, BAR 10-06, Nov-Dec 1984.
    40. Who or What Was Yahweh’s Asherah? André Lemaire, BAR 10-06, Nov-Dec 1984.
    41. Doings at Digs, BAR 11-01, Jan-Feb 1985.
    42. The Fortresses King Solomon Built to Protect His Southern Border, Rudolph Cohen, BAR 11-03, May-Jun 1985.
    43. Ancient Ivory, Hershel Shanks, BAR 11-05, Sep-Oct 1985.
    44. Ancient Seafarers Bequeath Unintended Legacy, Osnat Misch-Brandl, BAR 11-06, Nov-Dec 1985.
    45. The City of David After Five Years of Digging, Hershel Shanks, BAR 11-06, Nov-Dec 1985.
    46. Jerusalem Tombs from the Days of the First Temple, Gabriel Barkay and Amos Kloner, BAR 12-02, Mar-Apr 1986.
    47. Why the Moabite Stone Was Blown to Pieces, Siegfried H. Horn, BAR 12-03, May-Jun 1986.
    48. From Ebla to Damascus- The Archaeology of Ancient Syria, Marie-Henriette Gates, BAR 12-03, May-Jun 1986.
    49. Solomon’s Negev Defense Line Contained Three Fewer Fortresses, Rudolph Cohen, BAR 12-04, Jul-Aug 1986.
    50. The Iron Age Sites in the Negev Highlands, Israel Finkelstein, BAR 12-04, Jul-Aug 1986.
    51. BAR Interviews Avraham Eitan, Hershel Shanks, BAR 12-04, Jul-Aug 1986.
    52. The Search for Roots, Helen Frenkley, BAR 12-05, Sep-Oct 1986.
    53. Why King Mesha of Moab Sacrificed His Oldest Son, Baruch Margalit, BAR 12-06, Nov-Dec 1986.
    54. Lachish—Key to the Israelite Conquest of Canaan? David Ussishkin, BAR 13-01, Jan-Feb 1987.
    55. Arad, Ze’ev Herzog, Miriam Aharoni, and Anson F. Rainey, BAR 13-02, Mar-Apr 1987.
    56. The Well at Arad, Ruth Amiran, Rolf Goethert, and Ornit Ilan, BAR 13-02, Mar-Apr 1987.
    57. Queries and Comments- Human Sacrifice and Circumcision, BAR 13-02, Mar-Apr 1987.
    58. The Saga of Eliashib, Anson F. Rainey, BAR 13-02, Mar-Apr 1987.
    59. King Solomon’s Wall Still Supports the Temple Mount, Ernest-Marie Laperrousaz, BAR 13-03, May-Jun 1987.
    60. The Jerusalem Wall That Shouldn’t Be There, Hershel Shanks, BAR 13-03, May-Jun 1987.
    61. Cult Stands, LaMoine F. DeVries, BAR 13-04, Jul-Aug 1987.
    62. Temple Architecture, Volkmar Fritz, BAR 13-04, Jul-Aug 1987.
    63. The United Monarchy: Rereading the Bible and the Archaeological Evidence, Lawrence H. Schiffman
  4. Videos
    1. The Archaeological Treasures Recovered from Illegal Construction on the Temple Mount
    2. King Hezekiah’s Seal Impression Found in the Ophel Excavations, Jerusalem
    3. Evidence of the Assyrian Siege at Lachish
    4. Tel Dan Stele – Evidence of King David?
    5. Evidence of the Babylonian Destruction of Jerusalem
    6. City of David Videos

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