The almost three-century Mameluke rule in Egypt began in 1250 and ended with the Ottoman conquest in 1517. It started with the first ever setback to the triumphant Mongols who had captured and sacked Baghdad, Aleppo and Damascus. This victory by Baybars, the founder of the Mameluke rule, saved Egypt and allowed him later to crush the Assassins in Syria and take Antioch from the Crusaders.

“Middle East and the Mamelukes,” Financial Times, July 7, 2007.