Excavations along the Southern Wall were undertaken by Benjamin Mazar in 1968-1978, and again by Ronny Reich in the 1990’s.
- A first-century street which was covered by stones thrown by the Romans off the Temple Mount.
- The Place of the Trumpeting, 4 CE – A stone with the inscription “to the place of trumpeting.”
- A flight of stairs leading to the main entrance of the Temple Mount
- Double and triple gates providing access to the Temple Mount. Above the Double Gate is an inscription mentioning Hadrian’s son (138 CE).
- Numerous ritual baths (mikvaot) for purifying oneself before entering the Temple Mount.
- Robinson’s Arch. Discovered by Edward Robinson in 1838, this arch supported a flight of stairs leading to the Temple Mount.
Between 1894-1897, archaeologists of the Palestine Exploration Fund uncovered shafts, tunnels and walls deliniating Mount Zion. Over the years, the shafts and tunnels were filled with soil, and in 2008, Israel Antiquities Authority archaeologists located and re-excavated the area. They discovered a wall from the Second Temple period which was built by the Hasmonean kings and was destroyed during the Great Revolt in 70 CE. They also found remnants of the previous excavations – beer and wine bottles and an old shoe.
- Jewish Virtual Library- Robinson’s Arch
- Jerusalem Archaeological Park
- BiblePlaces.com- Southern Temple Mount
- Solomon’s Stables and the Southern Gates
- The Place of the Trumpeting, 4 CE
- Double Gate, 661-750 CE
- Architectural History of Jerusalem, Charles Warren and Claude Reigner Conder, The Survey of Western Palestine, Palestine Exploration Fund, London, 1884.