Parchment from head phylacteries (tefillin) found at Qumran-
“Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one. Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength.”
Since these phylacteries contain additional biblical material not required by the later rabbinic tradition, these can be considered sectarian tefillin. The small, crowded script would certainly not have been acceptable by the standards of the later rabbis, but we cannot assume that all Jews fulfilling this commandment would have necessarily done so in accord with rabbinic norms.
Carmon, Efrat, ed. A Day at Qumran; The Dead Sea Sect and Its Scrolls, Exhibition Catalogue. Jerusalem- The Israel Museum, 1997
- Qumran Phylactery, 1st century CE
- Shema Yisrael, 3rd century CE
- The Shema- Affirming Faith in God and His Commandments
- Mishnah Berakhot 1-1-4- Laws Regarding recitation of the Shema
- The Shema and its Benedictions, Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy, Jewish Publication Society, Philadelphia 1993.
- Daily Life Culture of the Rabbis (3rd-7th century CE)