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Jews of Egypt

118 C.E. Fiscus Judaica/ The Jewish Tax/ “Jewish Streets” in Egypt
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118 C.E. Fiscus Judaica/ The Jewish Tax/ “Jewish Streets” in Egypt

What was “Jewish Egypt” like after the defeat of 117 CE? The evidence of tax receipts on ostraca is both objective and appalling. Ever since the year 70, which saw the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, any Jew in the Roman Empire was subjected to a special tax. The Emperor Vespasian decreed that, in […]

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115 C.E. – 117 C.E. The Jewish Rebellion against Emperor Trajan
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115 C.E. – 117 C.E. The Jewish Rebellion against Emperor Trajan

One undisputed fact remains: the brief idyll between the benevolent imperial couple (e.g. Trajan and  Plotina) and the Jews was soon to be shattered by the revolt of 115. The reaction of the Roman government fulfilled the desire of Hermaiskos to see the emperor support his “own people” instead of defending the “impious Jews.” And […]

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113 C.E. Judeopagan Conflict in Egypt
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113 C.E. Judeopagan Conflict in Egypt

We do know that the embassies (e.g. Jews and Pagans from Alexandria) or trial must have taken place before Trajan left Rome in November 113 C.E. to make war on the Parthians. CPJUD. II 157, Col. 2 When the winter was over they arrived in Rome. The Emperor learned that the Jewish and Alexandrian envoys […]

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73 C.E. The Jewish Synagogue at Liontopolis in Egypt
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73 C.E. The Jewish Synagogue at Liontopolis in Egypt

Josephus tells us that, after the fall of Masada (The Jewish War 7, 420-36), some fighters, having escaped from the disaster and taken refuge in Egypt, had attempted to foment a revolutionary movement within the ranks of the Jews of Egypt. The prefect of Egypt, Tiberius Julius Lupus, brought news of this to the ears […]

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July 1, 69 C.E. Tiberius Julius Alexander/ Vespasian
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July 1, 69 C.E. Tiberius Julius Alexander/ Vespasian

In 69 Tiberius was at work preparing the accession of Vespasian, who needed Egyptian support in order to be proclaimed emperor. Our prefect knew this and, on July 1, 69, he had his troops and the people of Alexandria swear allegiance to Vespasian. A mere scrap of papyrus bears witness to the festivities Tiberius organized […]

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May 66 C.E. Uprising of Jews in Alexandria
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May 66 C.E. Uprising of Jews in Alexandria

Tiberias Julius Alexander (e.g. nephew of the Jewish Philosopher, Philo) Tiberius had chosen an administrative career in the emperor’s service. Like everyone else, he had to begin by serving a term in the armed forces, before taking his first civil position in about 42 CE as the epistrategus of the Thebaid, governor of one of […]

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April 30, 41 C.E. Judeopagan Conflict
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April 30, 41 C.E. Judeopagan Conflict

The action begins with a preliminary hearing before the Imperial Council, the Consilium Caesaris (symboulion in Greek), on the fifth of Pachon, the day before the Calends of May, i.e., April 30. The year has not been conserved but we may assume it was the first of Emperor Cladius’ (e.g. 41 C.E. – 54 C.E.) […]

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41 C.E. Embassy of Pagan Alexandrians to Emperor Claudius (41-54 C.E.)
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41 C.E. Embassy of Pagan Alexandrians to Emperor Claudius (41-54 C.E.)

Judeopagan Conflict Berlin Papyrus Inv. 8877; CPJUD. II 156C, Col. 2 Isidoros: “My Lord Augustus, with regard to your interests, Balbillus (e.g. leader of the Alexandria mission) indeed speaks well. But to you, Agrippa (King of Judaea), I wish to retort in connection with the points you bring up about the Jews. I accuse them […]

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39 C.E. Philo is Part of Embassy to Emperor Caligula
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39 C.E. Philo is Part of Embassy to Emperor Caligula

Judeopagan Conflict/ The Temple Mount and Statue of Caligula Both the Jews and the Greeks (e.g. sent emmisaries to Rome) continued to plead their respective causes before the emperor. A Greek delegation, composed of “elders” (gerontes), left for Rome just after the advent of Emperor Caligula, soon to be followed by another, whose members included […]

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August 38 C.E. Jews and Synagogues of Alexandria
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August 38 C.E. Jews and Synagogues of Alexandria

Jews and Synagogues of Alexandria/ Judeopagan Conflict/ Murder/ Statue of Caligula in Synagogues The Jews of Hellenistic Egypt met with a certain amount of “anti-Judaism,” even during the period of their greatest influence, but things did not turn noxious until the Roman period. Ethnic strife and urban violence in Alexandria caused serious damage to the […]

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