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Author Archive: hadassah

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300-400: Christianity Becomes the Official Religion of the Roman Empire
By October 22, 2019 Read More →

300-400: Christianity Becomes the Official Religion of the Roman Empire

During the fourth century AD, Emperor Constantine the Great made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. This led to edicts against the Jews as well as laws protecting them. Constantine passed a law protecting Christians from Jews but he also passed a law exempting Jewish religious leaders from community service due to their […]

200-300 AD: Talmudic Evidence
By October 8, 2019 Read More →

200-300 AD: Talmudic Evidence

Talmudic sources describe the continued presence of Jews on the Temple Mount during this period. Rabbi Natan entered the Temple and found only one wall remaining and Rabbi Bibi instructed others on how to behave when visiting the Temple Mount. Jewish communities flourished in the Galilee and south of Jerusalem, as well as in the […]

100-200 AD: Revolt
By October 8, 2019 Read More →

100-200 AD: Revolt

The Bar Kokhba Revolt began as a guerrilla struggle against Rome in 132 C.E. Within a short time it had spread throughout the country, and the rebels took Jerusalem, which had not been heavily fortified by the Romans. Once the revolt was quashed by the Romans, Jews were banned from Jerusalem, but they returned to […]

400-500: Protection and Rejection
By September 26, 2019 Read More →

400-500: Protection and Rejection

The 5th century was characterized by the protection of the Roman Empire’s Jewish subjects while simultaneously rejecting them. On the one hand, privileges were granted to the Jewish patriarchs, and synagogues and the Jewish Sabbath were protected. On the other hand, Christians were forbidden from converting to Judaism, Jews were excluded from the military and […]

500-600: Decrees against “Heretics”
By September 26, 2019 Read More →

500-600: Decrees against “Heretics”

In the 6th century, Eastern Roman Emperors Justin and Justinian made a number of decrees against “heretics” which were aimed at other Christian groups, Samaritans and Jews. Jews continued to pray on the Temple Mount and to beseech God for the rebuilding of the Temple. 6th Century C.E. Cyril of Scythopolis 6th Century C.E. – […]

600-1000: The Arab Conquest
By September 26, 2019 Read More →

600-1000: The Arab Conquest

Caliph Umar (Omar) conquered the Land of Israel in 638 and the Dome of the Rock was constructed on the Temple Mount in approximately 685. In the first century after the Arab conquest, the community in the land was primarily Jewish and Christian. In 995, a Jewish governor was appointed to rule over Damascus, Aleppo, […]

1800-1900: The Awakening of Zionism
By September 26, 2019 Read More →

1800-1900: The Awakening of Zionism

The 19th century saw the awakening of political Zionism. The Dreyfus Affair galvanized Theodore Herzl to demand a homeland for the Jewish people. He published his seminal work, Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State) and met with Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany in an attempt to get him on board with Zionism. He predicted that there […]

1700-1800: Muslim Oppression
By September 25, 2019 Read More →

1700-1800: Muslim Oppression

The Jewish population of the Land of Israel grew to approximately 20,000 in the middle of the 18th century. The first construction of the Hurva Synagogue began in 1701, but the synagogue was destroyed by the Muslims in 1721, when the Jews were unable to pay the exorbitant taxes which were demanded of them. Other […]

1600-1700: Destruction of Tiberias
By September 25, 2019 Read More →

1600-1700: Destruction of Tiberias

Jews continued to immigrate to the Land of Israel in the 17th century. Rabbi Avraham Azulai moved from Morocco to Hebron in 1600. Jews fleeing persecution in Spain, Germany and Italy found their way to Palestine. In 1658, Rabbi Israel Yaakov Hagiz arrived from Morocco and established the Beit Yaakov Yeshiva in Jerusalem. This century […]

1500-1600: Mysticism in Safed
By September 25, 2019 Read More →

1500-1600: Mysticism in Safed

The Jewish community of Safed grew exponentially in the 16th century. Rabbi Yosef Caro, author of the Shulchan Aruch, a codification of Jewish law, was a resident of the city. Mystic scholar Rabbi Shlomo Alkabets wrote the famous Lecha Dodi song in Safed in 1524. Rabbi Moshe Kordovo developed Jewish mysticism into a new system […]