Greco-Roman Period
The third benediction recalls the Exodus from Egypt as a conformation of the truth of God’s sovereignty. Inherent in remembering the redemption of old is the hope for future redemption in the messianic age. Just as the Exodus is remembered in the third paragraph of the Shema, so it is the main theme of the final benediction which follows here.

True and firm, established and enduring, right and faithful, beloved and precious,
desirable and pleasant, revered and mighty, well-ordered and acceptable, good and
beautiful is this word unto us forever and ever. It is true, the God of the universe is our
King, the Rock of Jacob, the Shield of our salvation- throughout all generations he
endures and his name endures; his throne is established, and his kingdom and his
faithfulness endure for ever. His words also live and endure; they are faithful and
desirable for ever and to all eternity as for our fathers so also for us, our children, our
generations, and for all the generations of the seed of Israel his servants.

For the first and for the last ages thy word is good and endures for ever and ever; it is
true and trustworthy, a statute which shall not pass away. True it is that thou art indeed
the Lord our God and the God of our fathers, our King, our fathers’ King, our Redeemer,
the Redeemer of our fathers, our Maker, the Rock of our salvation; our Deliverer and
Rescuer from everlasting, such is thy name; there is no God besides thee.

Thou hast been the help of our fathers from of old, a Shield and Protector to their
children after them in every generation- in the heights of the universe is thy habitation,
and thy judgments and thy righteousness reach to the farthest ends of the earth. Happy is
the man who obeys thy commandments, and takes thy Torah and thy word to his heart.
True it is that thou art indeed the Lord of thy people, and a mighty King to plead their
cause. True it is that thou art indeed the first and thou art the last, and besides thee we
have no King, Redeemer, and Deliverer. From Egypt thou didst redeem us, O Lord our
God, and from the house of bondmen thou didst deliver us- all their first-born thou didst
slay, but thy firstbornthou didst redeem; thou didst divide the Red Sea and drown the
proud; but thou madest the beloved to pass through, while the waters covered their
adversaries, not one of whom was left. Wherefore the beloved praised and extolled God,
and offered hymns, songs, praises, blessings and thanksgivings to the King and God, who
lives and endures; who is high and exalted, great and revered; who brings low the
haughty, and raises up the lowly, leads forth the prisoners, delivers the meek, helps the
poor, and answers his people when they cry unto him. Praises to the Most High God,
blessed is he, and ever to be blessed. Moses and the children of Israel sang a song unto
thee with great joy, saying, all of them-

“Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the mighty ones? Who is like unto thee, glorious
in holiness, revered in praises, doing wonders?” (Ex. 15-11).

With a new song the redeemed people offered praise unto thy name at the seashore; they
all gave thanks in unison, and proclaimed thy sovereignty, and said-

“The Lord shall reign for ever and ever” (Ex. 15-18).

Rock of Israel, arise to the help of Israel, and deliver, according to thy promise, Judah
and Israel. Our Redeemer, the Lord of hosts is his name, the Holy One of Israel. Blessed
art thou, O Lord, who hast redeemed Israel.

28. Trans. Heinemann and Petuchowski, Literature of the Synagogue, pp. 25-6.