Jews settled in the Middle East in antiquity and came under Muslim rule in the 7th century. In the medieval period, Jews were protected and tolerated by their governments, but also treated as inferior to the local Muslims. In the twentieth century, the Jews were expelled from almost every Islamic country and centuries-old communities were uprooted.
Mishneh Torah, Maimonides

  1. The Jews Under Islam, Part One, Shelom Dov Goitein, The Jewish World: History and Culture of the Jewish People
  2. Jews of Iraq
  3. Jews of Yemen