Medieval W. Christendom
The sense of both historic and here-and-now Jewish enmity moved many in
medieval western Christendom to envisage Jews as allied with the forces of evil in the
world. In an immediate sense, the alliance was alleged between Jews and the omni-
present devil figure. Imagery of a Jewish-devil alliance abounds. Less immediately,
Jews were projected as future allies of the Anti-Christ figure that was assumed to make
its oppositional appearance onthe eve of the Second Coming, to win major victories over
the forces of Christ, and eventually to succumb to the overwhelming strength of divine
majesty. For many caught up with the imagery of an Anti-Christ figure, Jews would ally
themselves with this powerful, albeit transient figure in persecuting righteous Christians,
eventually to fail along with their Anti-Christ leader.

Out of all the negative imagery detailed thus far evolved a sense on the part of
many that the Jews were utterly inhuman. Thus, imagery of the Jews as animals or as
monsters came to suffuse medieval western Christendom, at least at popular levels. To
be sure, Jews were not the only figures so projected. Nonetheless, the harm done by this
evolution of negative imagery was considerable.