Greco-Roman Period
The Talmud here expresses a very important legal principle- one is forbidden to commit murder even upon pain of death. There can be no excuse of “just following orders.” One is required to sacrifice his own life rather than kill an innocent person.

A man came before Rava and said to him, “The ruler of my town said to me, ‘Go kill
so-and-so, and if you do not kill him, then I will kill you.’’’

Rava replied, “You must let him kill you, but do not kill. How do you know that your
blood is redder? Maybe the blood of that man is redder?”

81. Trans. S. Berrin.