India Muslims and Oil

India, Muslims and Oil
By December 21, 2016 Read More →

India, Muslims and Oil

Primary Sources August 1198, Forced Conversion of the Jews of Aden Aug 11, 1840, Viscount Palmerston to Viscount Ponsonby April 15, 1854, Karl Marx (The Author of Das Kapital) – The Outbreak of the Crimean War with Russia 1888, The Constantinople Convention Freedom of Passage Through the Suez Canal 1892, Marquess George Nathaniel Curzon of […]

December 15, 1917, Gilbert Clayton to Mark Sykes
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December 15, 1917, Gilbert Clayton to Mark Sykes

Gilbert Clayton, Britain’s chief representative to Mark Sykes in Cairo: “We have to consider whether the situation demands out-and-out support of Zionism at the risk of alienating the Arabs. By pushing them as hard as we appear to be doing, we are risking the possibility of Arab unity becoming something like an accomplished fact and […]

April 13, 1915, The De Bunsen Committee
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April 13, 1915, The De Bunsen Committee

The De Bunsen Committee was the first committee established by the British government to determine their policy toward the Ottoman Empire during World War I. It was established on April 8th 1915 by British Prime Minister H.H. Asquith, and was headed by Sir Maurice de Bunsen. The report of the De Bunsen committee established the […]

1910, German, British and Russian Railroads
By October 9, 2016 Read More →

1910, German, British and Russian Railroads

German, British and Russian railroads in Persia and Iraq as land routes to the Persian Gulf and access to India.

1908, Anglo-Persian Oil Company
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1908, Anglo-Persian Oil Company

The British controlled Anglo-Persian Oil Company discovers oil at Masjid-i-Sulaiman in the mountains of north-western Persia. Source: Wiki

1907, British and Russian Railroad in Persia
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1907, British and Russian Railroad in Persia

British and Russian Railroad in Persia (Iran) as land routes to the Persian Gulf and India Source: McLean, David, Britain and Her Buffer State. London Royal Historical Society: 1979, p. 67

November 6, 1902, Lee-Warner, ‘Russia and the Indian Empire’
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November 6, 1902, Lee-Warner, ‘Russia and the Indian Empire’

“In Afghanistan the situation is almost as bad as it can be… Professing to Russia to direct the foreign policy of the Afghans, we are unable to direct or control it… The Amir…is a factor in the balance of power, who can play us off against Russia and Russia against us, and the whole position […]

February 17, 1902, Russian Foreign Minister Vladimir Nikolaevich Lamsdorff
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February 17, 1902, Russian Foreign Minister Vladimir Nikolaevich Lamsdorff

“In Russia, Great Britain had for a century, at least, been regarded by the mass of the people as the one Power always to the fore in balking at every conjuncture the national aspirations and barring the natural development and expansion of Russia.” Source: Public Records Office /FO65/1640/56: ‘Anglo-Japanese agreements’. Sir Charles Scott to the […]

November 27, 1899, Berlin to Baghdad Rail Road
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November 27, 1899, Berlin to Baghdad Rail Road

On November 27, 1899, the Germans were given a definite concession to extend the railway (From Berlin) to Baghdad. Included in the concession were guarantees of a certain revenue per kilometer of track laid–the so ­called Kilometer Guarantees–and carefully worded provisions spelling out German rights to establish and operate irrigation projects, harbors, and various industries […]

October 21, 1898, Diaries, Central Zionist Archives
By October 6, 2016 Read More →

October 21, 1898, Diaries, Central Zionist Archives

One more recollection. Most of the time the Kaiser looked me full in the face. Only when I spoke of the new overland route to Asia-Mediterranean, Persian Gulf- did he stare into space as though lost in thought, and the thoughtful expression on his fine, serious face revealed to me that I had fully gripped […]