Greco-Roman Period
During the morning service the reader or cantor repeats the Amidah before the congregation with the addition of the Qedushah (“Sanctification Prayer”) which is recited together with the congregation. The Qedushah is a mystical description of the angels, Seraphim, praising God in the highest heavens just as humans praise Him on earth. This vision of heavenly praise comes from the books of the prophets Isaiah and Ezekiel. The version given here is for the Sabbathand festival additional service.

READER- We will reverence and sanctify thee in words of the holy Seraphim, who
hallow thy name in the sanctuary, as it is written by thy prophet, “and they called one
unto the other and said-

CONGREGATION- Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts- the whole earth is full of his
glory” (Is. 6-3).

READER- His glory fills the universe; his ministering angels ask one another, “Where is
the place of his glory?” Those over against them say, “Blessed—

CONGREGATION- Blessed be the glory of the Lord from his place” (Ezek.3-12).
READER- From his place may he turn in mercy and be gracious to the people who,
evening and morning, twice every day, proclaim the unity of his name, saying in love,

CONGREGATION- “Hear, O Israel- the Lord our God, the Lord is One” (Deut. 6-4).
READER- One is our God; he is our Father; he is our King; he is our Deliverer; and he in
his mercy will let us hear a second time, in the presence of all living [his promise], “To
be your God.”

CONGREGATION- “I am the Lord your God” (Num. 15-41).

READER- And in thy holy Scriptures it is written, saying,

CONGREGATION- “The Lord will reign for ever, your God, O Zion, unto all
generations. Praise the Lord” (Ps. 146- 10).

READER- Through all generations we will declare thy greatness, and to all eternity we
will proclaim thy holiness, and thy praise, our God, shall not depart from our mouth for
ever, for thou art a great and holy God and King. Blessed art thou, O Lord, the holy God.

141. Trans. Heinemann and Petuchowski, Literature of the Synagogue, pp. 78-9.