Greco-Roman Period
This Aramaic inscription, written on a copper sheet incised with a pointed instrument, was found at Horvat Kanaf in the Golan, about 3½ km. from the northeastern shore of the Sea of Galilee. It dates to the late 6th or early 7th century C.E. It indicates the extent to which magical practices and amulets had penetrated the Jewish communities of the Land of Israel into late antiquity.

A song of praise to the King of the Worlds Yah, Yah, Yah, Yahish of the Worlds, I-am-
who-I-am, 246 the King who speaks with distinct mystery to every bad and evil-doing
spirit, that you should not cause pain to Rabbi Eleazar the son of Esther, the servant of
the God of Heaven. Hzq and G’r, Shrd and Prt, Trgyn, ‘Std and Bqth, Slslyrh’, Qllqm,
Yqyps, Suriel, Raphael, Abiel, Anael, Nahariel, Nagdiel, Aphaphel and Ananel Ms Ps
Yqrndrys Yahu Krmsys the great god Thth Ghgh Tfhth Mrmr Psps Y-H-W-H, sanctity.

In every place where this amulet will be seen, you (the evil spirit) should not detain
Eleazar the son of Esther. And if you detain him, you will be cast immediately into a
burning fiery furnace. 247

Blessed are you our Lord, the Healer of all (people on) earth, send healing (and) cure to
Eleazar, Bwbryt, Tbryt, Bsht’rwt, the angels that are [appointed] over fever and
shivering, cure Ele[azar] by a holy command!

245. J. Naveh and S. Shaked, Amulets and Magic Bowls- Aramaic Incantations of Late Antiquity
(Jerusalem- Magnes Press, the Hebrew University; Leiden- E.J. Brill, 1985), p. 51.

246. Ex. 3-14.

247. Dan. 3-6.