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The First Revolt (66-73 CE)

Ben Yair Ostracon

  1. From Text to Tradition
    1. The Great Revolt
    2. Josephus- Historian of the Great Revolt
  2. Historical surveys
    1. Shaye Cohen. “Roman Domination- The Jewish Revolt and the Destruction of the Second Temple.” Part V
  3. Primary sources
    1. Josephus, War II, 405-48- The First Stage of the Revolt
    2. Josephus, War III, 1-7- The Appointment of Vespasian as General
    3. Josephus, War IV, 1-82- The Battle at Gamala
    4. Josephus, War V, 1-84, 269-88- The Battle of Jerusalem
    5. Josephus, War, X, 420-565- The Siege of Jerusalem
    6. Tacitus, Historiae V, 10-14- The Roman Earthworks at Jerusalem
    7. Babylonian Talmud Gittin 56a-b- The Rabbinic Account of the Siege
    8. Josephus, War VI, 149-266- The Final Roman Victory
    9. Dio Cassius, Historia Romana LXVI, 47- A Roman Account of the Revolt
    10. Josephus, War VII, 252-404- The Siege of Masada
    11. Josephus, Life 1-24, 80-83- The Autobiography of a Historian
    12. Josephus, Life 414-30- Josephus after the Revolt
    13. Josephus, War, Preface 6-16- Writing the History of the Jewish War
    14. Josephus, Antiquities XIV, 1-3- Josephus’ Philosophy of History
  4. Secondary sources
    1. Danny Syon. “Gamla- Portrait of a Rebellion.” Biblical Archaeology Review 18, 1 (1992).
    2. Nahman Avigad. “Jerusalem in Flames—The Burnt House Captures a Moment in Time.” Biblical Archaeology Review 9, 6 (1983).
    3. Ehud Netzer. “The Last Days and Hours at Masada.” Biblical Archaeology Review 17, 6 (1991).
    4. Jodi Magness. “Masada- Arms and the Man.” Biblical Archaeology Review 18, 4 (1992).
    5. Ze’ev Meshel. “Governments-in-Exile.” Biblical Archaeology Review 24, 6, (1998).
    6. Louis H. Feldman. “Financing the Colosseum.” Biblical Archaeology Review 27, 4 (2001).
    7. Steven Fine. “The Temple Menorah—Where Is It?” Biblical Archaeology Review 31, 4 (2005).
    8. Steve Mason. “Will the Real Josephus Please Stand Up?” Biblical Archaeology Review, 23, 5 (1997).
    9. Shaye Cohen. “The Credibility of Josephus.” From Jesus to Christ. PBS Frontline.
  5. Images
    1. The Roman emperor Nero portrayed on a silver coin, ruled 54-68 CE.
    2. Gamla, the first fortified city to be conquered by the Romans in the First Jewish Revolt.
    3. Coin minted in Gamla while under siege by the Romans during the First Jewish Revolt with Hebrew inscription, “of the redemption of holy Jerusalem.”
    4. Silver sheqel portraying a goblet, marks year 2 of the First Jewish Revolt, 67 CE (front) and pomegranates and Hebrew inscription, “Jerusalem the holy,” 67 CE (reverse).
    5. Bronze coin portraying a jar, marks year 2 of the First Jewish Revolt, 67 CE (front) and a vine leaf and Hebrew inscription, “freedom of Zion,” 67 CE (reverse).
    6. A Judea Capta coin, minted by the Romans portraying Vespasian the Roman commander of the northern campaign during the First Jewish Revolt and Roman emperor, ruled 69-79 CE, (front).
    7. A Judea Capta coin, minted by the Romans portraying Judea weeping under a palm tree symbolizing the Roman victory in the First Jewish Revolt (reverse).
    8. The Burnt House, Jerusalem, preserves ash and debris of its destruction in 70 CE.
    9. Roman gold coin depicting Vespasian’s triumphal return to Rome after his victory in the First Jewish Revolt.
    10. Arch of Titus, Roman Forum.
    11. Triumphal procession of the spoils of the Jerusalem Temple portrayed on the Arch of Titus, Rome.
    12. Roman tenth legion emblem imprinted on a floor tile.
    13. Bronze coin portraying the Roman Coliseum built by Vespasian with funds from the Jerusalem Temple.
    14. Aerial view of Masada and siege ramp built by the Romans
    15. Ben Yair Ostracon, Masada, believed by Yigael Yadin to be one of the lots drawn by the Zealots before committing suicide.
  6. Videos
    1. Steven Fine – Roman Judean Times

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