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The Bar Kokhba Revolt (132-135 CE)

Bar Kokhba Coin Front

  1. From Text to Tradition
    1. The Bar Kokhba Revolt
    2. Rebuilding for the Future
  2. Historical surveys
    1. Lee I. Levine. “Judaism from the Destruction of Jerusalem to the End of the Second Jewish Revolt- 70-135 C.E.” Part II
  3. Primary sources
    1. Dio Cassius, Historia Romana LXIX, 12-14- A Roman Account of the Bar Kokhba Revolt
    2. Eusebius, The Ecclesiastical History IV, 6- A Christian Account of the Bar Kokhba Revolt
    3. The Bar Kokhba Letters- Day-to-Day Conduct of the Revolt
    4. Jerusalem Talmud Ta’anit 4-6 (68d-69a)- Rabbi Akiva and Bar Kokhba
    5. Babylonian Talmud Gittin 57a- The Destruction of Betar
    6. Song of Songs Rabbah to 2-5 (no. 3)- The Sages of Usha
    7. Modestinus, Corpus Jurus Civilis Digesta 48-8-11- Circumcision Limited to Jews
  4. Secondary sources
    1. Werner Eck. “Hadrian’s Hard-Won Victory- Romans Suffer Severe Losses in Jewish War.” Biblical Archaeology Review 33, 5 (2007).
    2. Boaz Zissu. “Village Razed, Revel Beheaded.” Biblical Archaeology Review 33, 5 (2007).
    3. Kenneth G. Holum. “Iter Principis- Hadrian’s Imperial Tour.” Biblical Archaeology Review 23, 6 (1997).
    4. Amos Kloner. “Name of Ancient Israel’s Last President Discovered on Lead Weight.” Biblical Archaeology Review 14, 4 (1988).
    5. Ehud Netzer. “Jewish Rebels Dig Strategic Tunnel System.” Biblical Archaeology Review 14, 4 (1988).
    6. Anthony J. Saldarini. “Babatha’s Story.” Biblical Archaeology Review 24, 2 (1998).
    7. Hanan Eshel. “Aelia Capitolina- Jerusalem No More.” Biblical Archaeology Review 23, 6 (1997).
    8. Jerome Murphy-O’Connor. “Where Was the Capitol in Roman Jerusalem?” Bible Review 13, 6 (1997).
  5. Images
    1. Bronze Bust of Hadrian, ruled 117-138, Roman emperor who instigated the Bar Kokhba Revolt.
    2. Silver coin marking year 3 of the Bar Kokhba Revolt portraying facade of the Jerusalem Temple inscribed with the name Shim’on, 134 CE (front) and portraying the four species and the Hebrew inscription, “for the freedom of Jerusalem,” 134 CE (reverse).
    3. Cave of Letters where the Bar Kokhba documents were discovered.
    4. Letter discovered at Wadi Murabba’at from Bar Kokhba to his general Yeshua ben Galgoula. Bar Kokhba threatens to shackle his feet.
    5. The Babatha Papyri, the personal papers of a wealthy Jewish woman who apparently did not survive the Bar Kokhba Revolt.
    6. One of the Babatha Papyri.
    7. Lead weight inscribed with the name “Simeon son of Kosiba…Nasi (prince) of Israel.” discovered near Beth Guvrin, Judean Shephelah.
    8. Aelia Capitolina coin, minted by the Romans symbolizing the foundation of Jerusalem as a Pagan city.

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