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Jews in the Greco-Roman Diaspora (332 BCE-7th century CE)

  1. Sardis SynagogueFrom Text to Tradition
    1. Jews in the Hellenistic World
    2. Anti-Semitism in the Hellenistic World
  2. Historical surveys
    1. Shaye J.D. Cohen. “Judaism to the Mishnah- 135-220 C.E.” Part III
    2. Lee I. Levine. “Judaism from the Destruction of Jerusalem to the End of the Second Jewish Revolt- 70-135 C.E.” Part III
    3. Shaye Cohen. “Roman Domination- The Jewish Revolt and the Destruction of the Second Temple.” Part VI
  3. Primary sources
    1. Josephus, Antiquities XIII, 62-73- The Temple of Onias
    2. Josephus, Against Apion II, chapter 5- An Anti-Semitic Pogrom
    3. Josephus, Antiquities XIII, 348-55- Cleopatra’s Jewish Generals
    4. Tacitus, Historiae V, 4-5- Jewish Origins and Rituals
    5. Plutarch, Questiones Convivales IV, Question 5- The Jewish Abstention from Pork
    6. Seneca, De Superstitione- Popularity of Jewish Ethics
    7. Juvenal, Satires XIV, 96-106- Judaism as a Mystery Religion
    8. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History IV, 1-5- The Jewish Uprising
    9. Dio Cassius, Historia Romana LXVIII, 32-1-3- The Jewish Uprising
    10. The Visigothic Code- The Jews of Visigothic Spain (654-681)
    11. Socrates Sholasticus, Ecclesiastical History VI-16- The Blood Libel in Syria
    12. Melito, Bishop of Sardis. Easter Homily- The First Charge of Deicide against Jews
  4. Secondary sources
    1. John S. Crawford. “Multiculturalism at Sardis.” Biblical Archaeology Review 22, 5 (1996).
    2. Robert S. MacLennan. “In Search of the Jewish Diaspora.” Biblical Archaeology Review 22, 2 (1996).
    3. Letizia Pitigliani. “A Rare Look at the Jewish Catacombs of Rome.” Biblical Archaeology Review 6, 3 (1980).
    4. Gideon Foerster. “A Survey of Ancient Diaspora Synagogues.”
  5. Images
    1. Wall painting of a Torah shrine flanked by menorahs in the Jewish catacomb of the Villa Torlonia, Rome, 4th century.
    2. Wall painting of a large bird in the Jewish catacomb of the Villa Torlonia, Rome, 4th century.
    3. Wall painting of human figures in the Jewish catacomb of the Villa Torlonia, Rome, 4th century.
    4. Wall painting of a menorah in the Jewish catacomb of the Villa Torlonia, Rome, 4th century.
    5. Sarcophagi in the Jewish catacombs of the Villa Torlonia, Rome, 4th century.
    6. Greek inscription with Jewish symbols in the Jewish catacomb of the Villa Torlonia, Rome, 4th century.
    7. Basalt Lintel portraying a menorah, shofar and incense shovel, Naveh, Syria, 5th-6th centuries CE.
    8. Basalt door lintel with menorahs from the “Synagogue of the Hebrews” at Corinth, Greece.
    9. “Jewish Prayer Place” on the Island of Delos, Greece, 3rd century BCE.
    10. The synagogue of Ostia Antiqua, the ancient port of Rome, 4th-6th centuries CE.
    11. Diagram of the Synagogue of Ostia Antiqua, the ancient port of Rome, 4th-6th.
    12. The synagogue at Sardis, in modern Turkey, 4th-6th centuries CE.
    13. Interior of the synagogue at Sardis, in modern Turkey, 4th-6th centuries CE.
    14. Torah shrine in the synagogue at Sardis in modern Turkey, 4th-6th centuries CE.
    15. Wall painting in the synagogue at Sardis in modern Turkey, 4th-6th centuries CE.
    16. The mosaic floor at the Hamman Lif Synagogue in modern Tunisia, 2nd-5th centuries CE.
    17. Image of a date tree on the mosaic floor at the Hamman Lif synagogue in modern Tunisia, 2nd-5th centuries.
    18. Image of a lion on the mosaic floor at the Hamman Lif synagogue in modern Tunisia, 2nd-5th centuries.
    19. Image of a duck on the mosaic floor at the Hamman Lif synagogue in modern Tunisia, 2nd-5th centuries.
  6. Videos
    1. Jews in Ancient Rome
    2. Roman Judean Times

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