Persian Period

Underground Metropolis: The Subterranean World of Maresha, Amos Kloner, BAR 23:02, Mar-Apr 1997.
By January 26, 2009 0 Comments Read More →

Underground Metropolis: The Subterranean World of Maresha, Amos Kloner, BAR 23:02, Mar-Apr 1997.

Much of our work at the site of Maresha takes place underground—in tombs and in caves.1 BAR readers will not be surprised by the number of tombs, two of them with their walls covered with spectacular paintings. Much less common, however, are Maresha’s hundreds of caves. The subterranean labyrinth of spacious halls, small chambers, extensive […]

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Queries and Comments: How Tolerant Was Ancient Persia? BAR 22:04, Jul-Aug 1996.
By January 22, 2009 0 Comments Read More →

Queries and Comments: How Tolerant Was Ancient Persia? BAR 22:04, Jul-Aug 1996.

Ronny Reich’s discovery at Mamilla enriches our understanding of the 400-year struggle between Sassanian Persia and Byzantium. It is puzzling, however, that Reich asserts that “the Persian empire was not based on religious principles and was indeed inclined to religious tolerance.” On the contrary, the Sassanian Persian empire was firmly based on religious principles, namely […]

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Excavating an Ancient Merchantman, Elisha Linder, BAR 18:06, Nov-Dec 1992.
By January 22, 2009 0 Comments Read More →

Excavating an Ancient Merchantman, Elisha Linder, BAR 18:06, Nov-Dec 1992.

The Ma’agan Micha’el shipwreck A chance discovery of a 2,400-year-old shipwreck off the coast of Kibbutz Ma’agan Micha’el, 20 miles south of Haifa, has been yielding a storehouse of new insights into ancient seafaring and the shipwright’s art. Thanks to recent geomorphological changes—fluctuations in the sea level, sediment movements and shifts in local faults—along Israel’s […]

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Yahud Stamps, c. 539 BCE
By January 12, 2009 0 Comments Read More →

Yahud Stamps, c. 539 BCE

Yahud Stamps Excavations between 1926 and 1935 by Badé at Mizpah, Tell en Nasbeh. Stratum 2 begins shortly after 586 BCE and ends about 400 BCE. The passage of power from the Babylonians to the Persians is recorded in two nondescript fragments of pottery jugs from Mizpah. Both bear stamp impressions. This one reads M(W)S|H […]

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The Passover Papyrus from Elephantine, 419 BCE
By December 31, 2008 0 Comments Read More →

The Passover Papyrus from Elephantine, 419 BCE

Celebrating the Exodus in the Land of the Exodus “festival of the unleavened bread” Date- 419 BCE Current Location- Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany (P. 13464) Language and Script- Aramaic; alphabetic Biblical Verses- Exod. 12-15–20; 23-15; Lev. 23-6–7; Num. 28-17–18; 2 Kings 25-26 Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread; on the very first […]

Cyrus Cylinder, c. 535 BCE
By December 31, 2008 0 Comments Read More →

Cyrus Cylinder, c. 535 BCE

The King of Persia Defeats Babylon “the gods, who resided in them, I brought back to their places, and caused them to dwell in a residence for all time.” Date- c. 535 BCE Current Location- British Museum, London, England (BM 90920 + BIN II, no. 32) Language and Script- Assyrian?; cuneiform Biblical Verses- Isaiah 45-1; […]

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Artaxerxes I, 465-424 BCE
By December 30, 2008 0 Comments Read More →

Artaxerxes I, 465-424 BCE

Artaxerxes commissioned Ezra, a Jewish priest-scribe, by means of a letter of decree, to take charge of the ecclesiastical and civil affairs of the Jewish nation. A copy of this decree may be found in Ezra 7-13-28- 13 Now I decree that any of the Israelites in my kingdom, including priests and Levites, who wish […]

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Zenon Papyrus, 259 BCE
By December 25, 2008 0 Comments Read More →

Zenon Papyrus, 259 BCE

Zenon Papyrus One of the most valuable sources of information about conditions in Palestine in the middle of the third century is the correspondence of Zenon, an official of the finance minister Apollonius who served under Ptolemy II. Zenon’s archives were found in the Fayoum, Egypt, where he retired after the completion of his service. […]

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Yehud Coin 3, 4th century BCE
By December 25, 2008 0 Comments Read More →

Yehud Coin 3, 4th century BCE

Yehud Coin obverse Yehud Coin Obverse- Bearded male bust in three quarters to right wearing crested helmet. Reverse- Bearded male divinity seated to right on winged wheel, holding a falcon on his extended left; in lower right field, mask to left; above, Aramaic inscription- YHD. All in square rope pattern frame. Silver drachm, 3,29 grams, […]

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The Glory of Susa, c. 500 BCE
By December 16, 2008 0 Comments Read More →

The Glory of Susa, c. 500 BCE

Griffons Archers The glory of Susa- glazed brick wall decorations from the palace of Darius the Great, c. 500 BCE. Griffons under the winged disc of Ahura Mazda, the god of Wisdom. Lower- The frieze of archers of the Persian royal guard, the Immortals. A splendid archaic world swept away by Alexander. Wood, Michael, In […]

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