Hellenistic Period

Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Lawrence Schiffman, From Text to Tradition, Ktav Publishing House, Hoboken, NJ, 1991, p.120-138.
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Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Lawrence Schiffman, From Text to Tradition, Ktav Publishing House, Hoboken, NJ, 1991, p.120-138.

The Dead Sea Scrolls In the preceding chapter several of the groups or sects of the Second Commonwealth period were surveyed. These and a variety of other less well known groups left a vast literature which has come down to us in a number of forms and languages. Before investigating the nature and origins of […]

Posted in: Hellenistic Period
Lee I. Levine. “The Age of Hellenism: Alexander the Great and the Rise and Fall of the Hasmonean Kingdom.” Part II
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Lee I. Levine. “The Age of Hellenism: Alexander the Great and the Rise and Fall of the Hasmonean Kingdom.” Part II

Excerpted from Ancient Israel From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple. Ed. Hershal Shanks. Washington, D.C.- Biblical Archaeology Society, 1999. The Heavy Hand of Antiochus IV and the Rise of the Maccabees Soon after Jason bought his way into the high priesthood and Jerusalem became a polis, the Seleucid overlord Antiochus IV visited Jerusalem […]

Posted in: Hellenistic Period
Lee I. Levine. “The Age of Hellenism: Alexander the Great and the Rise and Fall of the Hasmonean Kingdom.”
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Lee I. Levine. “The Age of Hellenism: Alexander the Great and the Rise and Fall of the Hasmonean Kingdom.”

Excerpted from Ancient Israel From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple. Ed. Hershal Shanks. Washington, D.C.- Biblical Archaeology Society, 1999. Alexander the Great changed the face of Judea along with the rest of the then-known world. He reigned as emperor from 356 to 323 B.C.E. In 336 B.C.E. he became king of Macedonia and of […]

Hellenistic Oil Lamp
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Hellenistic Oil Lamp

Posted in: Hellenistic Period
Papyrus Faud 266, 2nd-1st century BCE
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Papyrus Faud 266, 2nd-1st century BCE

In 1944, W. G. Waddell discovered the remains of an Egyptian papyrus scroll (Papyrus Fuad 266) dating to the first or second century B.C. which included part of the Septuagint. George Howard, “The Name of God in the New Testament,” BAR March 1978, p.12.

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Coin of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, c. 169-8-164 BCE
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Coin of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, c. 169-8-164 BCE

Coin of Antiochus IV Epiphanes Tetradrachm, Antioch, c. 169/8-164 BCE. Antiochus IV Epiphanes reigned from 175-164 BCE. The Maccabeans/Hasmoneans revolted against Antiochus IV in 165 BCE. Their success is commemorated in the holiday of Hanukkah. Sotheby’s Auction Catalogue, Important Greek and Roman Coins, Zurich- Tuesday, 26th October, 1993. See also- Coin of Antiochus IV Epiphanes

Posted in: Hellenistic Period
Rosetta Stone, 196 BCE
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Rosetta Stone, 196 BCE

  Rosetta Stone The Rosetta Stone, issued on March 27, 196 BCE, proclaims clearly and for the first time that we know for certain the coronation of the king at Memphis, the traditional Egyptian capital, and decrees measures which will secure the loyalty and support of the native priesthood- “Since King Ptolemy, the ever-living, beloved […]

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Letter from Tobias, 257 BCE
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Letter from Tobias, 257 BCE

Letter from Tobias to Apollonius, an Egyptian finance minister. It concerns a shipment of animals sent from Transjordan to the King in Egypt. In the Ptolemaic period, many of the Greek immigrants revisited and retained connections with their places of origin. In addition, the possession of an overseas empire will have given Greek administrative officers […]

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Coins of Antiochus I, 280-261 BCE
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Coins of Antiochus I, 280-261 BCE

Antiochus I, Soter, 280-261 BCE, Tetradrachm, Phocaea. Silver. Sotheby’s Auction Catalogue, Important Greek and Roman Coins, Zurich- Tuesday, 26th October, 1993.

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The Septuagint, 285-246 BCE
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The Septuagint, 285-246 BCE

The Letter of Aristeas (whose authorship is uncertain) tells the story of the Greek translation of the Bible under the auspices of Ptolemy II Philadelphus. According to Aristeas, the translation was carried out by 72 sages (hence the name “Septuagint,” meaning seventy) who were brought from Jerusalem to Alexandria for this purpose. The same legend […]

Posted in: Hellenistic Period