Author Archive: Ardon

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April 7, 426 Emperors Theodosius II (408 – 450) and Valentinian III (425 – 455)
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April 7, 426 Emperors Theodosius II (408 – 450) and Valentinian III (425 – 455)

Inheritance Laws concerning Jewish Converts to Christianity “If a son, a daughter, or a grandson, one or many, of a Jew or of a Samaritan, shall cross over in a better judgment from the darkness of their proper superstition to the light of the Christian religion, their parents, namely father and mother, grandfather or grandmother, […]

July 9, 425 Emperors Theodosius II (408 – 450) and Valentinian III (425 – 455)
By January 18, 2017 Read More →

July 9, 425 Emperors Theodosius II (408 – 450) and Valentinian III (425 – 455)

Prohibition of Jews from State Service and the Legal Profession “ … [S]ince it behooves that the religious populace shall not be depraved by any superstition, we order that the Manichaeans, all the heretics or schismatics and astrologers, and every sect hostile to the Catholics must be expelled from the very sight of the various […]

425 The Temple Mount
By January 18, 2017 Read More →

425 The Temple Mount

“After the defeat of Bar Kokhba by the Romans in 135 C.E., Jews were banned from Jerusalem. Only in 425 C.E., when the Jews of the Galilee wrote to Byzantiane empress Aelia Eudocia, seeking permission to pray by the ruins of the Temple. Permission was granted and they were officially permitted to resettle in Jerusalem.” […]

June 8, 423 Emperors Theodosius II (408 – 450) Arcadius (395 – 408) and Honorius (393 – 423)
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June 8, 423 Emperors Theodosius II (408 – 450) Arcadius (395 – 408) and Honorius (393 – 423)

Prohibition of Building New Synagogues and Protection of Old Synagogues What we legislated recently concerning the Jews and their synagogues shall remain in force, namely, that they shall never be permitted to build new synagogues, neither shall they dread that the old ones shall be seized from them. Let them know, indeed, that the other […]

April 9, 423 Emperors Theodosius II (408 – 450) and Honorius (393 – 423)
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April 9, 423 Emperors Theodosius II (408 – 450) and Honorius (393 – 423)

Protection of Jews and Synagogues “Known and divulged to all are our decrees and those of our ancestors, in which we suppressed the arrogance and the audacity of the abominable pagans, as well as of the Jews and the heretics. We want the Jews to know, however, that we take with pleasure the occasion of […]

February 15, 423 Emperors Theodosius II (408 – 450), Arcadius (395 – 408) and Honorius (393 – 423)
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February 15, 423 Emperors Theodosius II (408 – 450), Arcadius (395 – 408) and Honorius (393 – 423)

Christian Protection of Synagogues “It seems right that in the future none of the synagogues of the Jews shall either be indiscriminately seized or put on fire. If there are some synagogues that were seized or vindicated to churches or indeed consecrated to the venerable mysteries in a recent undertaking and after the law was […]

March 10, 418 Emperors Theodosius II (408 – 450) and Honorius (393 – 423)
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March 10, 418 Emperors Theodosius II (408 – 450) and Honorius (393 – 423)

Exclusion of Jews from the Military “The entrance to State Service shall be closed from now on to those living in the Jewish superstition who attempt to enter it. We concede therefore to all those who took the oath of the Service, either among the Executive Agents or among the Palatins [executives in the financial […]

India, Muslims and Oil
By December 21, 2016 Read More →

India, Muslims and Oil

Primary Sources August 1198, Forced Conversion of the Jews of Aden Aug 11, 1840, Viscount Palmerston to Viscount Ponsonby April 15, 1854, Karl Marx (The Author of Das Kapital) – The Outbreak of the Crimean War with Russia 1888, The Constantinople Convention Freedom of Passage Through the Suez Canal 1892, Marquess George Nathaniel Curzon of […]

September 24, 416 Emperors Theodosius II (408 – 450) and Honorius (393 – 423)
By December 20, 2016 Read More →

September 24, 416 Emperors Theodosius II (408 – 450) and Honorius (393 – 423)

Prohibition of Jewish Conversion to Christianity to Avoid Crimes “It had been ordained, in the old laws as well as in ours, that, since we have learned that converts of the Jewish religion want to join the community of the Church in order to escape their crimes and out of various necessities, this is done […]

Jews of Iraq
By December 20, 2016 Read More →

Jews of Iraq

The mass emigration of Jews from Iraq in the years 1950 and 1951 brought to an end the existence of a community which had been in the region for millennia. From the very birth of Judaism in what was then Mesopotamia, Jews have been present in or very strongly linked to the area. Primary sources […]

Posted in: Jews of Iraq